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The discovery of the Varshavyanka by the NATO Orion and the capabilities of the Admiral Nakhimov TARKr

The Varshavyanka multipurpose DPL on the monitor of the NATO anti-submarine warfare aircraft. Image source: NATO Press Service

According to Western media, this week the location of one of the low-noise diesel-electric submarines of the 636.3 Varshavyanka Ave. of the Baltic Fleet was revealed by a multispectral optoelectronic module of one of the NATO anti-submarine aircraft (probably we are talking about the P-3C Orion anti-submarine aircraft). Given the fact that the submarine was not in combat mode, its surface position was quite an ordinary situation.

It is almost impossible to detect a submarine of this class in underwater mode at an economical speed. At the same time, it should be recognized that the absence of an anaerobic (air—independent) power plant that provides underwater operation of submarines for 15-20 days significantly reduces the combat stability of the 677 M DPL in comparison with foreign anaerobic analogues. Standard diesel-electric The EU with acid-lead batteries needs a daily (once every 17-27 hours) surfacing of the submarine for recharging by means of diesel generator sets. It is at such moments that the submarine is easily detected by optoelectronic modules and radar of anti-submarine and tactical aviation, as well as AFAR radar AN/ZPY-2 and MFAS UAV radar and optoelectronic RQ-4B Global Hawk and MQ-4C Triton.

Against this background, most non-nuclear submarines of the United NATO Navy already have air-independent power plants (VNEU). In particular, the French concern DCNS has designed an anaerobic injection of Scorpene Basic-AIP AM-2000 based on a MESMA type VNEU.

Also, submarines of this type use the integrated combat information and control system SUBTICS (Submarine Tactical Integrated Combat System), designed by UDS International. The system provides effective control of missile and torpedo armament, sonar complexes, as well as complexes of radio engineering and optoelectronic intelligence.

The German Navy is armed with multi-purpose ultra-low-noise Type 212A submarines. In addition to the standard silver-zinc batteries, the Siemens SINAVY Permasin VNEU is used on the basis of 9 proton-exchange fuel cells Siemens SINAVYCIS PEM BZM34, represented by tanks with cryogenic oxygen and metal hydride (metal alloy in combination with hydrogen). These electrochemical generators with a capacity of 34 kW power both the batteries and the rotating propeller of an electric motor with a capacity of 2400 hp.

It is noteworthy that by means of an electrochemical generator, the Type 212A can travel about 1,440 miles in economical underwater mode ("sneaking" mode at a speed of 3-5 knots); by means of 144 modular batteries charged from a 4245-horsepower MTU16V396 diesel generator — up to 420 miles. Against this background, diesel-electric submarines of 677 M Lada Ave. have a range of about 650 miles underwater.

Spanish anaerobic surfactants of the S-81 Isaac Peral class have an in-house VNEU based on the decomposition of bioethanol (BioEtOH) in special Coprox processor reactors with the production of high-quality hydrogen. The resulting hydrogen, along with oxygen, enters fuel cells designed by UTC Power. This VNEU provides the Spanish NAPS with a period of underwater operation up to 15-17 days.

Swedish diesel-stirling-electric submarines of the Gotland class have the highest underwater autonomy (up to 30 days). At the same time, they have the smallest displacement of 1,600 tons, as well as the lowest acoustic signature (no more than 45 dB).

Against this background, a completely logical question arises: what is the reason for the total "stalling" of the program for the development of an air-independent power plant based on diesel fuel reforming, designed by the Central Design Bureau Rubin and not brought to mind over the past 10 years?

About the capabilities of the upgraded heavy nuclear missile cruiser 1144.2M Admiral Nakhimov Ave.

It is known that in the last quarter of 2024, sea trials of the deeply improved TARKr 1144.2M Admiral Nakhimov Ave. will begin. Contrary to the Sputnik infographic, according to which the 1st rank cruiser as a near-range air defense system will receive outdated single-channel Osa—MA air defense systems along with 4-channel Dagger air defense systems, in reality, the short-range anti-missile barrier of this ship with a displacement of 25-26 thousand tons will obviously be represented by at least 4 — 6 shipboard ZRPC "Pantsir-M" with 16-24 target channels and the possibility of equipping both high—speed extended-range missiles 57E6M with a range of 40 km, and small-sized highly maneuverable missiles 19YA6 to intercept kamikaze UAVs and repel "star raids" of the enemy's RCC with parallel minimization of depletion of ammunition not less than 4 times.

It is also known that Admiral Nakhimov will be equipped with the Redut naval air defense system, which has more than 32-48 highly maneuverable 9M96DM missiles with a range of up to 130 km and gas dynamic control systems with active radar GOS, which provide the ability to intercept ballistic targets maneuvering with overloads of up to 25 units.

It is already known about the re-equipment of Admiral Nakhimov with 10×8 universal vertical PU of the 3S14 UKSK firing complex, represented by 80 transport and launch cells for the placement of hypersonic multipurpose tactical missiles 3M22 "Zircon", 3M55 "Onyx", 3M14T "Caliber-NK", as well as 3-flywheel two-stage low-altitude PKR 3M54.

Also, 91RT2 anti-submarine guided missiles with a range of up to 50 km can be used from the UKSK, which can be targeted by Ka-27 anti-submarine helicopters, or by the ship's own in-ship active-passive sonar station.

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